Atomic Energy Commission of Syria

 
   

  Chemistry

 

Thu 29 Jan 2015. Unlocking magnetization and polarization simultaneously. Scientists have controlled the structure of a material to simultaneously generate both magnetisation and electrical polarisation, an advance which has potential applications in information storage and processing. Researchers demonstrated that it is possible to unlock these properties in a material which initially displayed neither by making designed changes to its structure. To make a single material that has these two distinct properties - magnetisation and electrical polarisation - is difficult because the electronic requirements for obtaining them in a material are typically contradictory: materials characteristics, such as the crystal structure or the atomic composition, which favour polarisation often disfavour magnetisation. However, materials where polarisation and magnetisation coexist at room temperature are potentially important for low-energy information technology applications. More

 

  Energy

 

Wed 28 Jan 2015. Reseachers have developed the first autonomous industrialised public lighting system that works with solar and wind energy. Designed for inter-urban roads, motorways, urban parks and other public areas. This would reduce the cost by 20% compared with conventional public lighting systems. The prototype is 10 metres high and is fitted with a solar panel, a wind turbine and a battery. The turbine runs at a speed of 10 to 200 revolutions per minute (rpm) and has a maximum output of 400 watts (W). The generator that has been developed can start working at a wind speed of only 1.7 metres per second (m/s), whereas current wind turbines need more than 2.5 m/s. More

 

  Chemistry

 

Wed 24 Dec 2014. Detecting gases wirelessly and cheaply. chemists have devised a new way to wirelessly detect hazardous gases and environmental pollutants, using a simple sensor that can be read by a smartphone. These inexpensive sensors could be widely deployed, making it easier to monitor public spaces or detect food spoilage in warehouses. Using this system, the researchers have demonstrated that they can detect gaseous ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and cyclohexanone, among other gases. The new sensors are made from modified near-field communication (NFC) tags. These tags, which receive the little power they need from the device reading them, function as wirelessly addressable barcodes and are mainly used for tracking products such as cars or pharmaceuticals as they move through a supply chain, such as in a manufacturing plant or warehouse. NFC tags can be read by any smartphone that has NFC capability. The phones can send out short pulses of magnetic fields at radio frequency (13.56 MHz), inducing an electric current in the circuit on the tag, which relays information to the phone. More

 

  Nuclear

 

Wed 3 Dec 2014, New discovery sheds light on nuclear reactor fuel behavior during a severe event. UO_2 is the primary fuel component in the majority of existing nuclear reactors, but little is known about the molten state because of its extremely high melting point. Until now, the extremely high temperature and chemical reactivity of the melt have hindered studies of molten UO_2. This lack of fundamental information has made it difficult to evaluate issues associated with the interaction of molten UO_2 with a reactor's zirconium cladding and steel containment vessel. A new discovery about the atomic structure of uranium dioxide will help scientists select the best computational model to simulate severe nuclear reactor accidents. More

 

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