07-10-2015   -   Chemistry

Wed 7 Oct 2015. The 2015 Nobel Prize for chemistry has been jointly awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich, and Aziz Sancar for mechanistic studies of DNA repair. Having mapped, at a molecular level, how cells repair damaged DNA and safeguard the genetic information, their work has provided fundamental knowledge of how a living cell functions and is, for instance, used for the development of new cancer treatments. They have provided fundamental insights into how cells function, knowledge that can be used, for instance, in the development of new cancer treatments. More

  06-10-2015   -   Physics

Tue 6 Oct 2015. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015 recognises Takaaki Kajita in Japan and Arthur B. McDonald in Canada, for their key contributions to the experiments which demonstrated that neutrinos change identities. This metamorphosis requires that neutrinos have mass. The discovery has changed our understanding of the innermost workings of matter and can prove crucial to our view of the universe. A neutrino puzzle that physicists had wrestled with for decades had been resolved. Compared to theoretical calculations of the number of neutrinos, up to two thirds of the neutrinos were missing in measurements performed on Earth. Now, the two experiments discovered that the neutrinos had changed identities. More

  05-10-2015   -   Medicine

Mon 5 Oct 2015. The Nobel Prize for medicine has been jointly awarded to two scientists for their work on diseases caused by parasites and another for her research into the treatment of malaria. The winners are William Campbell of Ireland and Satoshi Omura of Japan, who discovered a new drug to treat parasitic diseases, and Youyou Tu of China, who used Chinese herbal medicine to find a new kind of antimalarial agent. More

  27-09-2015   -   Energy

Sun 27 Sep 2015. Small-scale nuclear fusion may be a new energy source according to a new research. Nuclear fusion is a process whereby atomic nuclei melt together and release energy. Because of the low binding energy of the tiny atomic nuclei, energy can be released by combining two small nuclei with a heavier one. Fusion energy may soon be used in small-scale power stations. This means producing environmentally friendly heating and electricity at a low cost from fuel found in water. Both heating generators and generators for electricity could be developed within a few years. The research looked at a new type of nuclear fusion process where almost no neutrons are released but instead fast, heavy electrons (muons), since it is based on nuclear reactions in ultra-dense heavy hydrogen (deuterium). More

  24-08-2015   -   Energy

Mon 24 Aug 2015. A new Power grid forecasting tool (PMI) that increases the accuracy of forecasting future electricity needs by up to 50%, and may also have the potential to save millions in wasted energy costs, has been developed. Accurately forecasting future electricity needs can be difficult due to sudden weather changes or other variables impacting projections minute by minute. The Power Model Integrator - PMI has been designed to assist with addressing costly errors that can lead to serious impacts, from blackouts to high market costs. Performance of the tool was tested against five commonly used forecasting models processing a years worth of historical power system data. Fluctuations in energy demand throughout the day, season and year along with weather events and increased use of intermittent renewable energy from the sun and wind all contribute to forecasting errors. Miscalculations can be costly, put stress on power generators and lead to instabilities in the power system. More

  17-08-2015   -   Chemistry

Mon 17 Aug 2015. Sol-gel Capacitor Dielectric Offers Record-high Energy Storage. Using a hybrid silica sol-gel material and self-assembled monolayers of a common fatty acid, researchers have developed a new capacitor dielectric material that provides an electrical energy storage capacity rivaling certain batteries, with both a high energy density and high power density. If the material can be scaled up from laboratory samples, devices made from it could surpass traditional electrolytic capacitors for applications in electromagnetic propulsion, electric vehicles and defibrillators. Capacitors often complement batteries in these applications because they can provide large amounts of current quickly. More

  23-07-2015   -   Physics

Thu 23 Jul 2015. Boosting Wireless Power Transfer with Magnetic Field Enhancement. Wireless power transfer works by having a transmitter coil generate a magnetic field; a receiver coil then draws energy from that magnetic field. One of the major roadblocks for development of marketable wireless power transfer technologies is achieving high efficiency. New research shows that passing wireless power transfer through a magnetic resonance field enhancer (MRFE) which can be as simple as a copper loop can boost the transfer efficiency by at least 100 percent as compared to transferring through air alone. MRFE use could potentially boost transfer efficiency by as much as 5,000 percent in some systems. By placing the MRFE between the transmitter and the receiver (without touching either) as an intermediate material, the researchers were able to significantly enhance the magnetic field, increasing its efficiency. More

  13-06-2015   -   Medicine

Sat 13 June. Hybrid scanner combines five molecular imaging technologies. Scientists are taking medical imaging research and drug discovery to a new level by developing a molecular imaging system that combines several advanced technologies for all-in-one imaging of both tissue models and live subjects. Each imaging technology has its own strengths. Direct positron imaging is a nuclear medicine technique that allows researchers to gain physiological information from radiolabeled imaging agents that bind to targets in the body, which are then imaged with a specialized detector. The hybrid system applies both conventional and hyperpolarized MRI. The former is ideal for soft-tissue contrast, and the latter has extremely fine imaging resolution due to a revolution in the technology called dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNSP), which is used to track minute biochemistry in the body -- such as the transition of the naturally occurring chemical pyruvate to lactate. More

  18-05-2015   -   Physics

Mon 18 May 2015. First Proton Collisions at World's Largest Science Experiment Should Start in Early June. The LHC at CERN in Geneva was restarted last Aplril for its second three-year run after a two-year pause to upgrade the machine to operate at higher energies. At higher energy, physicists worldwide expect to see new discoveries about the laws that govern our natural universe. The world's largest particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider made headlines when its global collaboration of thousands of scientists in 2012 observed a new fundamental particle, the Higgs boson. After that, the collider was paused for the extensive upgrade. Much more powerful than before, as part of Run 2 physicists on the Large Hadron Collider's experiments are analyzing new proton collision data to unravel the structure of the Higgs. More

  25-03-2015   -   Physics

Wed 25 Mar 2015. Researchers have shed new light on the fundamental mechanisms of heat dissipation in graphene and other two-dimensional materials. They have shown that heat can propagate as a wave over very long distances. This is key information for engineering the electronics of tomorrow. In the race to miniaturize electronic components, researchers are challenged with a major problem: the smaller or the faster your device, the more challenging it is to cool it down. One solution to improve the cooling is to use materials with very high thermal conductivity, such as graphene, to quickly dissipate heat and thereby cool down the circuits. Researchers have demonstrated that heat propagates in the form of a wave, just like sound in air. This was up to now a very obscure phenomenon observed in few cases at temperatures close to the absolute zero.Their simulations provide a valuable tool for researchers studying graphene, whether to cool down circuits at the nanoscale, or to replace silicon in tomorrow's electronics. More

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