05-10-2016   -   Chemistry

Wed 5 Oct 2016. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 was awarded jointly to Jean-Pierre Sauvage, University of Strasbourg, France, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, Northwestern University, USA and Bernard L. Feringa, University of Groningen, the Netherlands, "for the design and synthesis of molecular machines" More

  04-10-2016   -   Physics

Tue 4 Oct 2016. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 was divided, one half awarded to David J. Thouless, University of Washington, USA, the other half jointly to F. Duncan M. Haldane, Princeton University, USA and J. Michael Kosterlitz, Brown University, USA "for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter". More

  03-10-2016   -   Medicine

Mon 3 Oct 2016. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016 was awarded to Japan's Yoshinori Ohsumi, Tokyo Institute of Technology, "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy". More

  19-09-2016   -   Medicine

Mon 19 Sep 2016. New cyclotron used for fundamental and applied research in radiopharmaceutical chemistry. A new particle accelerator is further enhancing the research landscape. It will be used to generate isotopes with a short half-life, which are important for fundamental research but are also required for the medical imaging technique known as positron emission tomography (PET). As it is able to accelerate protons to an energy of 9.6 MeV, the cyclotron can be used to generate the two radioactive elements F-18 and C-11. These will be mainly employed for chemical and pharmaceutical research purposes but are also required for the PET medical diagnostic imaging technique. F-18 and C-11 have short half-lives of just 2 h and 20 min, respectively, which makes it necessary to generate them near the location at which they are to be used to ensure that they are available in sufficient quantities. More

  15-09-2016   -   Physics

Thu 15 Sep 2016. Peculiar metals; Insulator or conductor. The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. This little known and, so far, not particularly useful solid could be the prototype for a new kind of material with potentially technologically interesting properties. For instance, it is predicted that the electric conductivity of such solids should be influenced by magnetic fields in a characteristic way. This phenomenon is also known as magneto-resistance and plays an important role in modern data storage technologies. More

  28-07-2016   -   Energy

Thu 28 July 2016. New tool calculates emissions impacts and energy benefits from smart grid investments. Power Smart grid technologies significantly reduce greenhouse gases and other emissions resulting from power production and usage. Taken together, smart grid and intelligent buildings mechanisms could reduce US carbon emissions by 12 percent by 2030. The free web-based tool (EQT, Emissions Quantification Tool) enables power utilities and industry to evaluate not only the environmental impacts of adopting smart grid technologies, but can give organizations the operational data to sift through factors to justify the investment. EQT calculates the resulting changes to carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, and the energy and financial savings that may be achieved by integrating smart grid technologies. The evaluated technologies include coordinated electric vehicle charging schedules, battery-stored energy, and devices that enable integration of solar generation into the power grid. More

  11-07-2016   -   Medicine

Mon 11 Jul 2016. New microfluidic device offers means for studying electric field cancer therapy. Reseachers observed that a range of low-intensity, middle-frequency electric fields effectively stopped breast and lung cancer cells from growing and spreading, while having no adverse effect on neighboring healthy cells. For the past decade, scientists have been experimenting with the use of electric fields to treat malignant cells, in an alternative cancer treatment called tumor treating field, or TTF. The therapy stems from the interaction between key cellular structures in tumors, and an external electric field. More

  16-05-2016   -   Chemistry

Mon 16 May 2016. Radioactive isotopes reveal age of oil and gas wastewater spills. Spills from oil and gas operations can contaminate local water and soil with high levels of toxic chemicals, salts and radioactivity, but in many cases there is insufficient information to determine how long ago the spill occurred and identify its source. Tests in soils affected by oil and gas wastewater spills verify that the new methods can determine the age of spills and identify their origins, based on the variations of radium isotopes and their decay products found in contaminated soils or sediments. Radium's decay products include thorium and lead isotopes. More

  19-04-2016   -   Energy

Tue 19 Apr 2016. New Perovskite-Silicon Tandem Solar Cell Efficiency Record of 25.5%. Scientists used the novel solar material to create a hybrid solar cell with an efficiency of 25.5 percent – the highest level ever recorded. As recently as 2009, perovskite solar cells barely delivered efficiencies above 4 percent. The researchers used a three-tiered approach in creating their hybrid solar cell. The top layer, consisting of light-absorbing perovskite, captures short wavelength photons, while a bottom layer coated with silicon harvests longer wavelength photons. More

  18-04-2016   -   Chemistry

Mon 18 Apr 2016. A new chemical method to clean contaminated groundwater. Researchers ran a series of experiments in a laboratory setting using water containing uranium — present in contaminated groundwater at various sites in the United States as a legacy of Cold War-era processing and waste disposal activities associated with nuclear materials production. Calcium and phosphate work together chemically to immobilize uranium, which is shown to lead to increased cancer risk and liver damage in humans when ingested. More

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