31-10-2012   -   Agriculture

Wed 31 Oct 2012 Agriculture and food production contribute up to 29 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. Feeding the world releases up to 17,000 megatons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere annually, according to a new analysis. But while the emissions "footprint" of food production needs to be reduced, a companion policy brief lays out how climate change will require a complete re-calibration of where specific crops are grown and livestock are raised.more

  14-10-2012   -   Chemistry

Wed 10 Oct 2012 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012 was awarded jointly to Robert J., USA, and Brian K. Kobilka, USA “for studies of G-protein–coupled receptors”more

  09-10-2012   -   Physics

Tue 9 Oct 2012 The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012 was awarded jointly to Serge Haroche (Fra) and David Wineland (USA) for "ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring & manipulation of individual quantum systems"more

  09-10-2012   -   Medicine

Mon 8 Oct 2012 The Nobel Prize in Medicine 2012 was awarded jointly to Sir John B. Gurdon (UK) and Shinya Yamanaka (JPN) "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent". more

  08-10-2012   -   Chemistry

Sun 7 Oct 2012 Scientists have been able to differentiate the chemical bonds in individual molecules for the first time using a technique known as non contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results push the exploration of using molecules and atoms at the smallest scale and could be important for studying graphene devices, which are currently being explored by both industry and academia for applications including high-bandwidth wireless communication and electronic displays. more

  01-10-2012   -   Biology

Thu 25 Sep 2012 A novel approach for single molecule electronic DNA sequencing. Researchers have developed a novel approach to potentially sequence DNA in nanopores electronically at single molecule level with single-base resolution. DNA sequencing is the driving force behind key discoveries in medicine and biology. The reported nanopore-based sequencing by synthesis (Nano-SBS) strategy can accurately distinguish four DNA bases by detecting 4 different sized tags released from 5'-phosphate-modified nucleotides at the single molecule level for sequence determination. more

  05-09-2012   -   Physics

Wed 5 Sep 2012 The world's shortest 67-attosecond extreme ultraviolet laser pulse is achieved. An attosecond is an incomprehensible quintillionith (15 million billion) of a second. The accomplishment is even more remarkable because the team did it without the use of specialized equipment including a mile-long particle accelerator or a Superdome-sized synchrotron. Shorter light pulses helps open a new door to a previously hidden world, where we can watch electrons move in atoms and molecules, and follow chemical reactions as they take place. It is astounding to imagine that we may now be able to watch quantum mechanics in process. Quantum mechanics is the study of physics at the microscopic level, specifically looking at energy and matter on this miniscule scale.

  05-09-2012   -   Biology

Thu 30 Aug 2012 New model gives hands-on help for learning the secrets of molecules. The models will enable researchers to quickly and collaboratively see, touch, and test ideas about molecular interactions and the behavior of proteins. For biology researchers, the complex world of molecular proteins – where tens of thousands of atoms can comprise a single protein – may be getting clearer with the help of a new soft, transparent, and squishy silicone model they can hold in their hands. Its advantage over traditional computer and solid models is that it is mostly transparent and easy to manipulate, which will help researchers more intuitively understand protein structures, positions, and interactions. more

  05-09-2012   -   Agriculture

Sun 26 Aug 2012 Biorefinery makes use of every bit of a soybean. The corn industry produces almost 4,000 products from every bushel. Oil refineries produce fuels and ingredients for an estimated 6,000 products with a thoroughness that actually squeezes 44 gallons of products from every 42-gallon barrel of crude. Scientists today unveiled new technology intended to move soybeans, second only to corn as the top food crop in the U.S., along that same use-to-all path as a raw material for a wider portfolio of products. They described it ― a new integrated soybean biorefinery ― at the 244th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society. "Mention soybeans to most people, and they immediately think of the oil," said Ramani Narayan, MSU University Distinguished Professor, who reported on the new biorefinery technology. "Soybean oil is the world's most widely used edible oil. It's in some margarines, shortenings, mayonnaise, salad dressings, frozen foods, baked goods and many other items. But soybeans are about more than oil. Soybeans are nuggets of green gold that can be a treasure trove of ingredients for other products, and our new biorefinery provides a glimpse of that potential." The biorefinery is a relatively new concept, based on the approach used at oil refineries, which produce not just fuels from crude oil, but chemicals that become ingredients for thousands of other everyday products. Biorefineries use not oil as their raw material, but biomass ― plant material ― like corn and convert it into ethanol fuel, for instance, and a range of other products. more

  05-09-2012   -   Energy

Mon 20 Aug 2012 Fueling the future with renewable gasoline and diesel (IH2). A new process for converting municipal waste, algae, corn stalks and similar material to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is showing the same promise in larger plants as it did in laboratory-scale devices. Research is moving steadily toward having multiple demonstration-scale facilities in operation by 2014, with each facility producing a range of 3,500-17,500 gallons of fuel a day from non-food plant material. We will be designing commercial-scale facilities that could produce as much as 300,000 gallons per day from the same kinds of feedstocks. The technology, termed Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion (IH2), already has the credibility of its developer, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), where Linck is a scientist. Located in Des Plaines, Ill, GTI is a nonprofit energy technology research organization whose accomplishments during the last 70 years include nearly 500 products, 750 licenses and more than 1,200 associated patents. IH2 technology involves use of internally generated hydrogen and a series of proprietary catalysts, which jump-start chemical reactions that otherwise would happen slowly or not at all. The process uses as its raw material, or "feedstock," virtually any kind of nonfood biomass material — including wood, cornstalks and cobs, algae, aquatic plants and municipal solid waste ― and produces gasoline, jet fuel or diesel fuel. more

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