Safety and Security of radiactive sources
National Committee for Non-destructive Testing (NCNDT)
Nondestructive testing(NDT) is a branch of material science which includes applying methods and techniques enable us knowing the structure and characteristics of the materials and investigation about the discontinuities in them, and the durability of the materials and constructions to achieve the required services by them during the service and operation.
NDT plays an important role in quality control of the products during different manufacturing stages aiming to increase the safety and the reliability those products and reducing production costs. NDT is applied widely for detecting the quality of components and metallic pieces in engineering industries, petrochemicals, aerospace and electric power stations during manufacturing and service.
- This method uses penetrating electromagnetic waves have short wavelengths ( 10-13 - 10-9)m energy [0.05 -30]Mev and when those wave pass the metallic materials it will detect the interior of those materials, also varying thicknesses, density, impurities, and discontinuities or voids, by recording the radiographic image for those materials on a sensitive film or on an electronic screen.
- Applications of RT : this method is applied for testing metallic materials at all manufacturing stages (casting-forging, rolling, welding and after heat treatment) and for testing nonmetallic materials (Plastic-concrete-insulators-electric and electronic pieces)
- Eddy current method (ET) uses electromagnetic fields [5-10] MHz and these fields (generated from special probes) induce in the tested materials which are conducting to the electricity, local currents named eddy currents or focco currents, and due to the mutual change between the eddy current electromagnetic field and the external inductor electromagnetic field from the probes, we can know the composition of the tested materials and their defects.
- Applications of ET : that method has many applications like measuring the electric properties for tested materials (electric conductivity) or the magnetic properties like (magnetic permeability) or the mechanical properties (hardness and integrity of heat treatments) and we can detect by using that method surface defects and subsurface defects like Cracks and Impurities which are lying on 5 mm deep from the surface of tested material.
This method uses a magnetic field generated from a direct or an alternating current for magnetizing the ferromagnetic tested material, then magnetic particles are sprinkled on the tested material for detecting the surface and subsurface discontinuities which cannot be seen by the naked eye in the ferromagnetic materials, and the accumulated magnetic particles on the surface of the tested materials indicate to the discontinuities and defects in those ferromagnetic materials.
- Applications of MT : : MT is used for detecting the cracks and voids (porosities) and slag in the ferromagnetic surfaces after the different manufacturing operations (forging-casting-welding –grinding-heat treatment)
- Liquid penetrant testing method uses the physical properties like the capillary action and dwell property of the dye &fluorescent liquids, and these liquids penetrate in the cracks and voids which are unseen to the naked eye which are opened to the surface of the tested material, then the excess liquids are removed (wiped) from the surface of the tested material and then a suitable developer material is added for detecting those cracks and defects by appearing again the penetrant liquids on the surface in the defects locations.
- Applications of PT : PT is used for testing the different metallic materials (stainless steel, Iron, steel, aluminum, copper and magnesium) after operations (forging-casting-welding-heat treatment –grinding) and also it is applied for nonmetallic materials like (glass-plastic and ceramic)
Note: The material must be non-porous
- Ultrasonic testing method uses elastic mechanical waves which have frequencies above the range of human hearing which exceed 20kHz till 25MHz, where the ultrasonic waves spread in the tested materials and reflect on the separated surfaces in them and we use the travelling time and reflection time and amplitude of the ultrasonic wave in detecting the thicknesses and corrosions and detecting the discontinuities and defects like cracks, laminations, porosities and slag in the tested materials.
- Applications of UT : UT is used for testing metallic materials, concrete, plastic and ceramics
petrochemicals, metallic constructions, ships industries, railways and electric power plants and nuclear power and technical research centers (researches in welding, casting and metallic materials and nonmetallic materials and testing the material like metals, concrete, industrial plastics)
1- executing all NDT works for governmental and nongovernmental sectors.
2- presnting consultations and technical supervision in NDT field.
3- -holding training courses in NDT methods in cooperation with industrial testing &research center under supervising NCNDT which consist of members belonging to governmental sectors and to the public and private establishments. NCNDT is formed by the decree issued by atomic energy commission of Syria AECS aiming for spreading out the technology of NDT and qualifying and certifying the national technical personnel from both public and private sectors according to the international specification for qualifying and certifying the NDT personnel, ISO -9712 and as mentioned in the technical document IAEA-TEC-DOC-628 issued by the international atomic energy agency IAEA
4- Issuing certifications in NDT methods for technical personnel in governmental and nongovernmental sectors who are compromised to the certification terms in level I&II
National Biosafety Committee
The Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) has founded the first National Biosafety Committee (NBC) in Syria and was a pioneer to lay foundations, guidelines and procedures to be followed by competent authorities in the country. In addition, the AECS was the first in the country to set up an Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) to implement related guidelines and procedures.
AECS fully prepared the biosafety of genetically modified organisms and their products act draft. The biosafety act was passed into law by the Syrian parliament and received the Presidential Assent in 2012 (Law No. 24).
- The policies and procedures adapted to ensure the environmentally safe application of biotechnology
- According to Law No. 24, each competent authority will form an IBC. The IBC would include experts in recombinant DNA, and experts in biosafety and physical containment (Biosafety guidelines and regulations for the Syrian Arab Republic, 2001). Among its responsibilities, the IBC establishes and implements policies that provide safe conduct of biotechnology research and ensures compliance with applicable guidelines.